Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. (checkered leaf disease). Polygonal spots that indicate the presence of this nematode in the leaf lamina are very characteristic. A. Mohammad Deimi and S. Barouti, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad . General information about Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (APLORI).

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references ritzemaabosi cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.


Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. It feeds endoparasitically on mesophyll cells of leaves, and ectoparasitically on buds and growing points Southey, ; Siddiqi, The nematodes move in the water film over plants, not within the stem tissue, to reach the leaves and buds.

Rain splashes and leaf contacts contribute to re-infestation and spread Wallace, Aphelenchoids leaves are invaded through the stomata. The nematodes feed on the parenchymatous tissue of the mesophyll and destroy the cells, resulting in leaf spots or blotches, easily seen on the under surface.

The nematodes leave brown tissue through the stomata and migrate in the water film on the surface to infect terminal flower buds which produce deformed and under-sized blossoms. As many as 15, nematodes may be found in one leaf of chrysanthemum MAFF, ; over individuals per 14 g of infested aster seeds have been recovered Brown, Limonium sinuatum attacked by A.

In chrysanthemum leaves, a female lays about eggs in a compact group; eggs hatch in days and the juveniles take days to reach maturity; the life cycle takes days Wallace, In leaves of groundsel Senecio vulgaris the life cycle is completed in days Stewart, In susceptible chrysanthemum varieties the female remains in the leaf at one place, feeds on adjoining cells and lays many eggs which hatch into rapidly developing juveniles; however, in resistant varieties the female moves about rapidly through the tissues, feeding on cells, but lays only a few eggs whose emerging juveniles fail to reach maturity Wallace, In strawberry fields in Poland, both Aphelenchoides fragariae and A.

Like other plant-parasitic Ritzemaboi species such as A. Survival and source of infection A. It survived immersion in paraffin oil for 12 days Saeed and Roessner, Christie revived specimens in dried chrysanthemum leaves after 16 months, but not after 19 months; Steiner revived them after 22 months; Voss after 2 years; and Aphelencchoides after 3 years.

The nematode is also carried on the seeds of aster Brown, No change in nematode population per number of hearts occurred when strawberry plants infested with A. Several weeds are hosts goosegrass, chickweed, buttercup, sowthistle, speedwell hence weed control is important. In oat callus tissue, the nematode increased fold in 6 weeks, although oat is not a recorded host Webster, ; numbers increased in plant growth-stimulating substances Webster, It also reproduced and multiplied in callus tissues of carrot, tobacco, periwinkle and marigold; the reproduction seemed to be influenced by the concentration of cations in the culture Dolliver et al.


Monoxenic cultures of A.

EPPO Global Database

Interactions with other Aphelenchoidess Cross and Pitcher co-inoculated A. In such an interaction, nematodes appear to act as vectors for the bacteria and may also stimulate bacterial growth either by producing a suitable metabolite or by modifying the host substrate Pitcher, In southern regions of Russia, A. The alaminate leaves condition of strawberry is due either to the nematodes alone, or to the nematodes acting in association with less virulent strains of C.

In experiments, aphelenfhoides growth of Ditylenchus dipsaci on tobacco was depressed by simultaneous infection with A. The latter species was not affected by D. In tests on tobacco plants, A. The negative or positive influence of a virus is due to the various physiological changes it causes in a plant, and not to a direct influence on the nematodes which ingest the virus particles with the cell contents Weischer, Introduction Symptoms and control of diseases in strawberry due to infestation by A.

Siddiqi reviewed control of A. Strawberry runners treated with fensulfothion superseded were less susceptible to attack than the untreated ones Hirling, Of the spray chemicals fenitrothion gave the best control of A. Treatment of chrysanthemum nursery soil with an organophosphorous nematicide was very effective in control of this nematode Fukazawa and Kobayashi, ; Kobayashi et al. Suggested control measures include cleaning and burning infested leaves, submerging infected cuttings in hot water, spraying of foliage with chlorpyrifos Gill, Guidelines have been given for the efficacy evaluation of nematicides against A.

The UK Ministry of Agriculture, Ritzemqbosi and Food’s revised edition of an advisory leaflet on chrysanthemum eelworm disease caused by A. This is a reflection of the development of year-round chrysanthemums with small stools MAFF, Host-Plant Resistance In Japan, 61 strawberry cultivars were studied and divided into three groups according to susceptibility to injury by A.


The most resistant group contained 14 cultivars including Otomezakuramomothe group with medium resistance contained 32 cultivars including Seikobizanand the most susceptible group contained 15 cultivars including Hagoromo Nakagome and Kato, In Poland, none of the 33 strawberry cultivars was entirely resistant to A.

Several authors Goffart, ; Voss, ; Wilson,etc. It should be noted that the commercial varieties are constantly changing and new ones are being introduced, so that a list of resistant or less-resistant varieties will not serve any practical irtzemabosi MAFF, Cultural Practices and Hot-Water Treatment Cultural methods of control include thorough and constant rogueing of plants showing signs of infestation; burning all infected material; propagating only from healthy stocks and in clean ritzfmabosi and containers; and avoiding contact between plants and undue surface moisture of the leaves Siddiqi, In France, cultural methods to control A.


Christie reported the successful use of hot-water treatment at Best results should be obtained if runners are taken before September MacLachlan and Duggan, Tobacco plants inoculated with the endotrophic mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and with A.

Common weeds goosegrass, chickweed, buttercup, sowthistle, speedwell are hosts and hence weed control is important in the control of A.

Host records of parasitic leaf nematodes. Indian Phytopathology, 24 2: Taxonomic status of the bud and leaf nematodes related to Alphelenchoides fragariae Ritzema Bos, Bladnematoder orsakar miljonforluster for den svenska jordgubbsodlingen varje ar. A handbook of pests, diseases and weeds of quarantine significance. New Delhi, 2nd Rev. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi Schwartz on Crassula coccinea.

The control of Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi on chrysanthemums. Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa, E, No. Investigations on harmful influence of fauna on Chrysanthemum X hortorum Bailey apheldnchoides in Poznan and its close neighbourhood.

Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm (Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi)

Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, Seria E, 6 1: Evaluation of the effectiveness of several preparations for the control of chrysanthemum eelworm Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi Schwartz Steiner occurring on border chrysanthemum. Leaf and stem nematodes in strawberries – a serious problem. Mitteilungen des Obstbauversuchsringes des Alten Landes, 40 6: Aphelenhcoides plant disease records in New Zealand: New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 20 4: Phytophthora hibernalis and Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi on foliage of Aquilegia vulgaris in New Zealand.

Australasian Plant Pathology, 9 2: A list of new plant disease recordings from New Zealand and short notes on three diseases. Aphelehchoides Plant Pathology, 11 4: Aphelenchoididae infesting Limonium ritzemaboi at Valdivia, Chile.

The harmful effect of Aphelenchoides fragarip and A. Gesunde Pflanzen, 33 5: Bossis M, Caubel G, Monoxenic culture of plant parasitic nematodes on callus tissue. Sciences Agronomiques, Rennes, No. Britain, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, A seed-borne attack of chrysanthemum eelworm Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi on the annual aster Callistephus chinensis.

New observations on the presence of Aphelenchoides spp. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes Braunschweig, 24 9: Cayrol JC, Apheoenchoides S, aphelenchiodes Histopathological study of the chrysanthemum leaf eelworm disease in monoxenic cultures.

Annales de Zoologie-Ecologie Animale, 4 2: Aphelechoididae in leaf buds of black currant Ribes nigrum L. Aphelechoididae w pakach lisciowych porzeczki czarnej Ribes nigrum L. Progress in Plant Protection, 54 4: Their Bionomics and Control.

Occurrence of Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi on the foliage of Chrysanthemum maximum in Mexico. The position regarding strawberry decline in France. Studies in the relationship of eelworms and bacteria to certain plant diseases.

The etiology of Strawberry cauliflower disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 39 4: Occurrence of the leaf nematode, Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi in chrysanthemums in the State of Sao Paulo.

Foliar, root-lesion and other nematodes. New Zealand Journal of Apgelenchoides, 5: First report of the foliar nematode Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi infecting chrysanthemum in Iran.